Title: Structural Analysis of Land Use Pattern in Delhi India
1 Structural Analysis of Land Use Pattern in Delhi India Elizabeth A. Wentz School of Geographical Sciences Arizona State University Tempe AZ 85287-0104 INTRODUCTION Delhi India has a long history as a major urban center. Delhi has been rebuilt numerous times by various dynasties that have ruled over the region creating a pattern of development that is challenging to quantify. The most recent rebuilding occurred in the mid 20th century and was planned by British architect Edwin Lutyens. The building and rebuilding of the city influences the structure. The remnants of the last dynasty before the British is very close to the India Gate area or the most downtown like part which is often called Old Delhi. The objective of this research is to examine the growth pattern of Delhi with the India Gate as the central focus of growth. I evaluated the structure of land use/cover by comparing the areas of different categories in concentric rings. I assessed the extent that Delhi fits the neoclassical economic bid rent model (Von Thünen 1966). The theory suggests that people will make economically rational decisions with respect to residential and agricultural locations providing the city is located on a flat plain transportations costs are relative to distance and the city has a central business district (Thrall 1987). I evaluate this with respect to the location of the urban (Urban High Density Urban High Density and Asphalt/Concrete) agriculture (fallowed and cultivated) water and undisturbed classes of land use and land cover. STUDY AREA The study area covers approximately 1500 km² of the metropolitan Delhi area and the surrounding non-urban areas 76.96E 28.44N by 77.40E 28.76N (Figures 1). The metropolitan area is in the northern part of India situated on the Indio-Gangetic Plain along the Yamuna River. The elevation of the city ranges between 213 to 305 meters. Delhi has hot summers and fairly cold winters with summer time high temperatures that can reach 45 ºC. Rainfall is dominated by monsoonal weather patterns with rainfall occurring from the middle of June to the end of September. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The concentrations of each land use category in concentric rings from the India Gate are reported in Tables 1 and 2. The Yamuna River located less than 5 km from the city center limits mobility between the central business district and the eastern side of the river (Figure 2). As a consequence the east side of the river retains much of its rural characteristics (with cultivated agriculture and pockets of low density urbanization). Over 9 of the areas total agriculture is within 5 km of the city center. The Yamuna River continues to bisect the regions at 10 to 15 km from the core. One the west side of the river where residents are not impeded by river crossing urbanization is much higher again demonstrating the impact the river has on urban growth. The success of agriculture near the river particularly on the west side - is also likely due to fertile fluvial soils. DATA AND ANALYSIS The remotely sensed data were classified using an expert system approach. I used a Boolean decision rule that includes the initial MDM land cover classification (VNIR bands only) and Delhi land use ancillary data to produce a final classification with 13 categories (Figure 2). These 13 categories are Urban High Density Urban Low Density Park Cultivated Vegetation (crops) Asphalt/Concrete Undisturbed Compacted Soil (fallow) Water Airport Mines Fluvial Sediments Historical Ruins and Golf Course. Three classes (Mines Historical Ruins and Golf Course) were explicitly designated by the land use map. Using the classified image I calculated the percent land use/cover in each category in concentric rings from the the India Gate. Equation 1 represents the percent of each land use/cover category per concentric ring. Equation 2 represents the percentage of the total land use/cover category. Such that for each land use type (i) the area within a given concentric ring (j) is compared to the total area of all land use/covers in that same concentric ring (j). Such that for each land use type (i) the area within a given concentric ring (j) is compared to the total area of that same land use/cover (i) across the entire study area (Figure 2). One might expect that the Urban High Density class would occupy the greatest area in the center of the city followed by the Urban Low Density class. As you progress away from the city core the Urban High Density class should decrease and the Urban Low Density class should increase. Instead the central core of the city is dominated by Urban Low Density (24) followed by Urban High Density (21) for a combined 45 urban cover. The combined urban cover peaks at 55 in the regions 5 to 10 km from the city center and again between 15 km to the edge of the data. Land use planning across the city favors high-density construction for middle-class residents. These are also the areas where there are jobs and access to public transportation. CONCLUSIONS While classical bid rent theory cannot be perfectly tested because of data limitations and Delhi fails to meet some of the basic assumptions the methodology does allow us to examine the structure of the city. We found the river and historic land marks modified the expected pattern of growth. (1) REFERENCES Stefanov W.L. M.S. Ramsey and P.R. Christensen Identification of fugitive dust generation transport and deposition areas using remote sensing Environmental and Engineering Geoscience vol 9 p.p. 151-165 2003. Stefanov W.L. and M. Netzband. Assessment of ASTER land cover and MODIS NDVI data at multiple scales for ecological characterization of an arid urban center. Remote Sensing of Environment vol 99 p.p. 31-43 2005. Thrall G.I. Analysis of Green Belts Comment. Town Planning Review vol. 58 p.p. 199-201 1987. Von Thünen J. H. The Isolated state an English edition of Der isolierte Staat Translated by Carla M. Wartenberg. Edited with an introduction by Peter Hall Oxford New York Pergamon Press. 1966. (2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank David Nelson and Shoursaseni Sen Roy with their help in creating the classified image. Funding provided by NASA (NNG04GO57G).
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