Church had become powerful and wealthy which led to corruption.
Pope and Vatican involved in all the political affairs of Europe.
Ordinary people felt the church not meeting their needs.
Beginnings of what many saw as abuses.
3 List of Abuses
Selling of indulgences
Immorality among the priesthood
Excessive veneration of the saints
Relic worship (whats a relic)
4 The altar of St. Francis Xavier in the Church of the Gesu in Rome. 5 Martin Luther
German monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg.
Studied the Bible intensely
Came to the conclusion that only faith was required for salvation Catholics emphasized faith and good works.
Believed that Bible was sole authority on religion and Christianity.
6 Martin Luther cont.
Only wanted to reform the church not start a new one.
In 1517 issued Ninety-Five Theses.
Thousands copies printed.
Began move toward break by 1520.
7 Martin Luther cont.
Luther refuses to renounce his beliefs.
Luthers reform movement became a religious revolution.
Lutheran church resulted in most of Germany.
Bible reading preaching hymn singing.
Called on German princes to overthrow Catholic Church and set up German church.
Excommunicated January 1521.
Summoned to appear before Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.
8 John Calvin and Calvinism
Moved to Geneva Switzerland in 1536.
Became a Protestant city ruled by church.
Developed doctrine known as Calvinism.
Doctrine spread into France
9 Reformation in England
Rooted in politics not religion.
Henry VIII had no male heir blamed his wives.
First married to Catharine of Aragon of Spain a Catholic.
Has daughter Mary.
Wanted a divorce which the Pope would not grant.
10 Henry VIII
Wanted to marry Anne Boleyn.
Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer agrees to annul marriage with Catharine.
Henry VIII breaks ties with Rome.
Declares Church of England with king at top.
Anne bares him no boys just Elizabeth a Protestant.
Next wife Jane Seymour gives him a sickly son Edward.
11 Wives of Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Catherine Howard Anne of Cleves Catherine Parr 12 (No Transcript) 13 Counter Reformation or Catholic Reformation
Catholics decided there really must be a problem since so many are discontent.
Creation of the Society of Jesus Jesuits founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
Reformed papacy. No more dealings with finances and Italian military and political affairs.
Council of Trent.
14 Council of Trent
Held March 1545 by the order of Pope Paul III at city of Trent.
Met in three major sessions from 1545-1563.
Reaffirmed Catholic beliefs.
Scripture and tradition held equal authority.
Only the church could interpret Scripture.
Faith and good works OK purgatory a real place and indulgences OK too just cant sell them.
15 Catholic Reformation basically too little too late. 16 Consequences of Protestant Reformation
Wars of Religion in France
Fighting between Catholics and Protestants in England
Hostilities between Spain and England
Civil War in England
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