Title: SelfPerception and Temperament Type of Gifted Children
1 Self-Perception and Temperament Type of Gifted Children Youth
Education Research Conference
March 27 28 2008
Debra A. Troxclair Ph.D.
University of Louisiana at Monroe
College of Education and Human Development
Curriculum Instruction Dept.
700 University Blvd. Strauss 233
2 Self-concept Achievement of Gifted
Do gifted individuals have better self-concepts than non-gifted individuals
If they do why
If they dont why not
3 Introduction 4 The debate
High self-concept vs. Low self-concept
5 What about effects of personality on self-concept
Gifted children have social and emotional developmental needs because of variations in facets of development and may have difficulties resulting from a lack of awareness and acceptance of their personality type.
6 Self-Perception Temperament Type Achievement Grade Level and Gender in Intellectually Gifted Youth
7 How is the self-perception of a gifted child influenced by .
Personality type (specifically extroversion/introv ersion)
8 Performance in school is strongly influenced by the ways they think and feel about themselves (Lewis 1994).
Gifted children have special needs because of their unique differentiating characteristics
Large accumulation of information about emotions that has not been brought to awareness
Being unusually sensitive to the expectations and feelings of others
Having a heightened self-awareness accompanied by feelings of being different
Experiencing early development of an inner locus of control and satisfaction
Being strongly motivated towards self-actualization
9 Background and Importance of the Study 10 Needs of gifted individuals
Needs related to these differentiating characteristics include a need to
Identify their own and others perceptual filters and defense systems
Learn to clarify the expectations of others
Assert their own needs and feelings non-defensively
Share the self with others for self-clarification
Confront and interact with the value systems of others
Learn to set realistic goals and to accept setbacks as part of the learning process
Follow divergent paths and pursue strong interests
Acquire help in understanding the demands of self-actualization
11 Type theory help gifted students learn affectively and cognitively
Cognitive development can be affected by type theory as it offers a framework for structuring teaching and learning activities
Personality type affects preferences for teaching and learning
There is a relationship between psychological type and subject matter preferences that may play a part in an individuals level of achievement in a particular subject area.
Underachievement occurs more often due to a mismatch of type between teacher and students than to poor self-concept (Barger Hoover 1984)
12 Statement of the Problem 13
The purpose of the study was to discover the relationships between
as related to
Temperament type (Extroversion/Introversion)
14 Harters Model of Self-Concept
The image we hold of ourselves (Hoge Renzulli)
Attitudes feelings and knowledge about our abilities skills appearnace and social acceptability (Byrne as cited in Hoge Renzulli)
Dimensions of self-concept
Evaluative or self-esteem dimension
15 Streins Hierarchy of Self-Concept
Emphasis on behaviors instead of feelings
Evaluative 16 Self-Concept Models
Nomothetic ---gt Global Self-Worth
Multi-dimensional view of self-concept
17 Self-Perception Self-perception The way children perceive their competence and self-adequacy across specific domains as measured by the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children (HSPPC) 18 HSPPC . 19 Jungs Personality Type
Signature of ones actions that makes one recognizably his/her own as measured by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC)
20 NF Temperament Types 21 SJ Temperament Types 22 NT Temperament Types 23 SP Temperament Type 24 The Extrovert/Introvert Dimension
Seek external activity
Interaction in order to create the energy needed to guide themselves through the day
Get energy by initiating activity in the environment
Need to externalize thoughts and ideas aloud
Thrive on seeking stimulus from their surroundings
Energy is derived and revitalized by reflecting upon stimulus received from their surroundings
Do not feel the need to externalize thoughts or ideas until pressure to communicate with others requires it
Feels ideas and thoughts are satisfying in and of themselves
Energy comes from the peace of their internal garden rather than from outside stimuli energy is within themselves
They expend their energy by painting an internal picture of what is real
25 Method 26 Data Collection Self-Perception HSPCC May 1997 Temperament Type MMTIC May 1997 California Achievement Test Scores from Spring 1996 May 1997 Achievement Data Gender/Grade Level Demographics section of MMTIC May 1997 27 Additional information
Participation was voluntary in accordance with all school district policy
Administration of the instruments was counterbalanced the MMTIC was administered first at one schools followed by the HSPPC. At the next school the order of admissions was reversed
It took about 1 hour to 1 hour 15 minutes to complete the instruments
28 The Murphy Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children
70 item self-report measure respondent is asked to choose a preferred response from 2 choices neither of which is right or wrong
The four dimensions of personality type were assessed by this instrument
SN (Sensing iNtuiting)
TF (Thinking Feeling)
JP (Judging Perceiving)
EI (Extroversion Introversion)
Responses were made by selecting the a or b choice on a hand-scorable answer sheet and are recorded as a standard four letter code one letter from each of the four pairs (SN TF JP or EI) for a total of 16 possible personality types. Those types are ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTPESTJ ESPJ ENFJ AND ENTJ)
29 More on MMTIC
Content validity reported by 21 members of the Association of Psychological Type
Construct validity reported with
Childrens Personality Questionnaire
the Learning Preferences Inventory
and the Learning Pattern Assessment
30 More on MMTIC
Internal consistency of discriminant function
Spearman-Brown Split-hal reliabilty for discriminant function scores
EI .62 .65
SN .68 .63
TF .65 .64
JP .72 .75
Pearson Test-retest reliability
Preference Classifications (gamma) and Discriminant Function Scores (Pearson product moment correlation)
EI .71 .61
SN .75 .69
TF .64 .58
JP .71 .68
31 The Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children
36 item paper and pencil instrument which has responses devised in a structured alternative format. This means the student is first asked to decide which kind of child is most like him or hen and then is asked if this is only sort of true for him/her or is really true for him/her
Responses are scored on a scale from 1 to 4 where 1 indicates a low perception of confidence and a score of 4 reflects a high perceived competence
32 Hypotheses Research Design Results 33 Hypotheses
H1 There is a significant relationship between the criterion variable of temperament type and the composite set of predictor variables of self-perception the E/I dimension academic achievement gender and grade level in selected intellectually gifted students in grades 4 through 8.
MDA was used to test this hypothesis
Results Accepted There was a low to moderate significant relationship with temperament type and the predictor variables and that these variables were highly intercorrelated.
H6 The relationship between self-perception and the independent variables of grade level gender academic achievement and the E/I dimension significantly differ according to temperament type
MANOVA procedure was used
The following significant differences were found between
NF and SJ
NF and Undecided
NT and SJ
NT and Undecided
SJ and SP
Undecided and SP
The largest difference was found between the SP and the Undecided groups and the smallest difference was between the NT and NF groups.
H7 There is a significant difference between temperament type and the E/I dimension on the cirterion varialbe of self-perception
MANOVA method was used
Results Hypothesis 7 was accepted for the E/I dimension and rejected for the temperament type variable.
Extraverts scored significantly difference from introverts and the undecided group on athletic competence
The Undecided group scored significantly different from introverts on the social acceptable scale of self-perceptions
H8 There is a significant interaction between the variables of temperament type the E/I dimension and academic achievement on the criterion varialbe of self-perception.
MANOVA method was used
While there was no significant interaction among any of the three variables of the E/I dimension temperament type and achievement the self-perception means differed according to the E/I dimension
The extravert group mean was significantly higher than both the introvert and undecided groups on athletic competence
The extravert group mean was significantly higher than the introvert and undecided groups on social acceptance.
H10 There is a significant interaction between males and females across grade levels on the criterion variable of self-perception.
MANOVA method was used
While there was no significant interaction found between the composite set of gender and grade level on self-perception there was signifcant interaction between grade level and the physical appearance scale and between gender and athletic competence physical appearance and behavioral conduct self-perception.
Males scored significantly higher than females on athletic competence physical appearance scales
Females scored significantly higher than males on behavioral conduct scale
Fifth graders scored higher on the physical appearance scale than did subjects in all other grade levels.
38 Discussion 39
Within this study a low to moderate significant relationship was found between temperament type and the composite set of variables of self-perception the E/I dimension of personality type academic achievement gender and grade level. However there were no significant independent relationships between temperament type and each of the variables. These variables were highly intercorrelated.
The relationship between the composite set of independent varialbes of grade level gender academic achievement and the E/I dimension significantly differed according to temperament type. These significant differences were found for the NF and SJ types. Additionally 5 out of the 6 other significant differnces found included those students with the N dimension in their temperament types.
Consistent with Myers McCaulleys findings (as cited in Bireley 1991) which link the gifted childs preference for the N domain to his/her feelings of being different. (Olszewshi-Kubilius Kulieke 1989 also found gifted 7 to 9th graders to be N males were NT and females for NF
Gifted children are more likely to be I (Gallagher Geiger Myers McCaulley)
Students in this present study were extraverts (56.5) rather than intraverts (25.3) or Undecided (18.27) with no significant differences relative to gender.
Self-perception means for the variables of athletic competence and social acceptance significantly differed according to the E/I dimension
Es scored higher than Is and Undecideds on athletci competence
Undecided groups scored significantly higher than introverts on the social acceptance scale of self-perception.
Gender was significantly related to self-perception scales of athletic competence physical appearance and behavioral conduct.
Findings concurred with Hoge and McSheffrey for athletic competence and physical appearance and with Li regarding physical appearnance
Self-perception means for variables of athletic competence and social interaction between grade level and physical appearance
Fifth graders scored significantly higher than did subjects in the remaining grades
Inconsistent with Lis findings who reported that 4th graders were more positive in perception of their physical appearance.
43 Recommendations 44
Examine the relationship between temperament type and
experience or length of time in gifted programs
locus of control
Longitudinal studies of gifted individuals would be useful to reveal if personality/temperament type and self-perception change or maintain over time
Studying personality type in atypical populations of gifted individuals (gt/ld underachievers artistically talented/creative gt students) and comparing/contrasting those students with more typical gifted students would add insight into how those students function
Studies investigating the effects of matching teachers of the gifted and their students according to personality type on achievement and self-perception
Development of an affective curriculum about personality type
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!