Similar problems and conceptions have evolved in widely different fields
There are general system laws which apply to any system
Definition of System
Sets of elements standing in interrelation
Type of System
Open Closed system
There exist models principle and laws that apply to generalized systems or their subclasses
The whole is more that the sum of its parts
There are general system laws which apply to any system of a particular type
General theory of systems would be a useful tool and providing on models that can be used in different fields
5 General system theory in education
The education of scientific generalists
Need for a simpler more unified approach to
we often hear that one man can no longer cover a broad enough field and that there is too much narrow specialization
Any research group needs a generalist
Generalist would naturally be concerned with system problems. These problems arise whenever parts are made into a balanced whole.
6 Science and society
Knowledge of the laws of physics is excellent
- our technological control of inanimate nature
Knowledge of biological laws is not so far
sufficient to allow for a good amount of biological technology in modern medicine and applied biology
The application of the modern methods of scientific agriculture husbandry etc would well suffice to sustain a human population
lacking is knowledge of the laws of human society a sociological technology.
7 Science and society
The achievements of physics do efficient destruction
we have famines in vast parts of the world while harvests rot or are destroyed in other parts war and indiscriminate annihilation of human life culture
They are the outcome of the fact that we know and control physical forces only too well biological forces tolerably well and social forces not at all.
If we would have a well-developed science of human society and a corresponding technology it would be the way out of chaos and impending destruction of our present world.
8 Living machine and its limitation
What is the difference between a normal a sick and
a dead the standpoint of physics and chemistry
the difference is not definable
In terms of physics and chemistry
a living organism is an aggregate of processes by means of chemical formulas mathematical equations and laws of nature.
These processes different in a living sick or dead
The laws of physics do not tell a difference they are not interested in whether dogs are alive or dead.
DNA molecule protein enzyme is determined by physical
or chemical laws none is better and healthier than other.
9 Living machine and its limitation
We need Model to define and explain organism
Concept of animal by mechanical machine in 17th century
Muscle heart by mechanical principle of levers pumps
By heat engine when steam engine was introduced.
By cybernetic machine when self-regulating machine came
The machine model of organism has limitations
Origin of machine
Living organism exchange of components metabolism
Know what system and system theory is
Important thing is not part but whole in system
To solve some problem in system concern
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy (1968) General System theory Foundations Development Applications
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