1 Chapter Seven GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAMWORK 2 After reading this chapter you should be able to 1. Define the term group and explain why it is not just a collection of people. 2. Identify different types of groups operating within organizations as well as how they develop. 3. Describe the importance of norms roles status and cohesiveness within organizations. 4. Explain how individual performance in groups is affected by the presence of others (social facilitation) the cultural diversity of group membership and the number of others with whom one is working (social loafing). 5. Explain what teams are and distinguish them from groups in general. 6. Describe the types of teams that exist in organizations and the steps that should be followed in creating them. 7. Understand the evidence regarding the effectiveness of teams in organizations. 8. Explai n the factors responsible for the failure of some teams to operate as effectively as possible. 9. Identify how successful teams can be built. 3 Group Dynamics - focus on the nature of groups including their formation and development their structure and their inter- relationships with individuals other groups and the parent organization What Is a Group - groups have four key characteristics Social interaction - two or more individuals who are able to influence each other Stability - members stay together and function as a unit Common interests or goals - helps to achieve a mutual goal Recognition as being a group - members perceive differences between themselves and non-members 4 Types of groups Formal - created by the parent organization and intended to direct the members toward some organizational goal Command - group determined by the connection between individual s who are formal members of the organization - determined by the organizations rules regarding who reports to whom Task - formed around a specific task - expertise rather than position in the organization determine membership Informal - without direction from the organization develops around a common goal or interests of the members Interest - group of employees who voluntarily come together to express and satisfy a common interest(s) Friendsh ip - group extends beyond the workplace - develops without encouragement from management - offers opportunities to satisfy social needs 5 Figure 7.2 Varieties of Groups in Organizations Groups 6 Why Do People Join Groups - can achieve ends that would not be possible alone Satisfy mutual interests - by bonding together people can satisfy mutual goals Achieve security - groups provide safety in numbers and protection against common enemies Fill social needs - satisfy peoples basic need to be with others Fill need for self-esteem - groups provide opportunities for people to be recognized 7 Five-Stage Model of Group Development - a general framework of group formation Forming - members get to know each other and seek to establish ground rules - stage complete when individuals begin to think of themselves as a group Storming - members resist control by group leaders and show hostility - stage complete when conflict is resolved and the groups leadership is accepted Norming - group becomes more cohesive shared feelings become common and feelings of camaraderie develop - stage complete when individuals accept a common set of expectations about the way to do things Performing - energy devoted to accomplishing goals Adjourning - occurs when goals are met and the group is no longer needed - end may be abrupt or gradual 8 Punctuated-Equilibrium Model of Group Development - recognizes that members working to meet a deadline approach their task differently in the first half of their time together than they do in the second half Phase 1 - groups define their task setting a mission that is unlikely to change until the second half of the groups life Phase 2 - recognition that group must operate differently in order to meet its goals 9 The Structural Dynamics of Work Groups - interrelationships between the individuals constituting a group and the characteristics that make group functioning both orderly and predictable Roles - the typical behaviors characterizing a person in a social context Role incumbent - person performing a particular role Role expectations - behaviors expected of incumbent - social disorganization would result without clear role expectations Role ambiguity - incumbents confusion arising from not having clear role expectations - leads to job dissatisfaction lack of commitment Role differentiation - tendency for various specialized roles to emerge as groups develop Task-oriented role - activities of a group member who more than anyone else helps a group reach its goal Socioemotional role - activities of a group member who is supportive and nurturant of other members Self-oriented role - activities of a group member who focuses on personal good often at the expense of others 10 The Structural Dynamics of Work Groups (cont.) Norms - generally agreed-on informal rules that guide the behavior of group members Prescriptiv e norms - dictate the behaviors that should be performed Proscriptive norms - dictate specific behaviors that should be avoided Status - relative prestige social position or rank given to groups or individuals by others Formal status - prestige one has by virtue of official position in the organization - status symbols - objects reflecting the position of a person within an organizations hierarchy of power Informal status - prestige accorded persons with certain characteristics not formally recognized by the organization 11 The Structural Dynamics of Work Groups (cont.) Cohesiveness - the strength of members desires to remain part of their group - influenced by - severity of initiation into the group - conditions of external threat - amount of time that members spend together - size of group (i.e. smaller tends to be more cohesive) - history of success - caution cohesiveness can be problematic if groups goals are contrary to the parent organizations goals 12 Social Facilitation - both performance improvements and decrements stemming from the presence of others Drive theory - the presence of others increases arousal which in turn increases the tendency to perform the dominant response - if response is well learned performance is enhanced - if response is novel performance is impaired Evaluation apprehension - fear of what others might think 13 Social Facilitation (cont.) Social facilitation via an Electronic Presence - computerized monitoring already is widely used - performance suffers on complex tasks when computer monitored 14 Performance in Culturally Diverse Groups - workplace becoming increasingly diverse both racially and ethnically 15 Social Loafing - tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases - contribution is less than it would be if performing alone Additive tasks - group tasks in which the coordinated efforts of several people are added together to form the groups product Social impact theory - the effect of any social force acting on a group is divided equally among its members - the larger the group the less pressure on any member to perform well 16 Social Loafing (cont.) Effect of culture - culture plays an important part in determining peoples tendencies toward social loafing Individualistic culture - members place a high value on individual accomplishments and personal success - individual interests guide performance Collectivistic culture - members place a high value on shared responsibility and the collective good of all - group interests guide performance Overcoming social loafing - make each performer identifiable - public posting - make work tasks more important and interesting - reward individuals for contributing to their groups performance - use punishment threats 17 Figure 7.13 Effect of Culture on Social Loafing 25 20 15 Standardized Performance Measure 10 5 0 Peoples Republic of China Israel United States 18 Team - a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable 19 Types of Teams - vary along four major dimensions Figure 7.15 20 How Successful Are Teams - answering this question is tricky Survey evidence - where used teams were generally highly regarded Case study evidence - further support for the effectiveness of teams in many different organizations - studies may not be entirely objective Experimenta l evidence - autonomous work teams had - fewer accidents and lower rates of absenteeism - members who were more satisfied with their jobs than employees in conventional work arrangements Potential Obstacles to Success - members who are unwilling to cooperate - failure to receive support from management - some managers are unwilling to relinquish control - failure to cooperate with other teams 21 Building Successful Teams Diversify team membership - different skills and experiences Keep teams small in size - least number of workers practicable Select the right team members - employees who enjoy teamwork Train train train - cross-training Clarify goals Link individual rewards to team performance Use appropriate performance measures - team should develop their own measures of success Promote trust - support mutual interests Encourage participation - leads to greater commitment to decisions Cultivate team spirit and social support - can do attitude Foster communication and co-operation Emphasize the urgency of the teams task - rally around challenges Clarify the rules of behavior Regularly confront teams with new facts - prompts fresh approaches Acknowl edge and reward vital contributions to the team
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!