Claims that people have the ability to shape their own destiny and this is not driven by biological instinctive influences.
Emphasize the wholeness or completeness of personality rather than focusing on its structural parts.
What matters is how people view themselves.
3 Themes of Humanistic Theories
Emphasis on personal responsibility and free will each of us is responsible for what happens to us.
The importance of the here and now rather than the past.
Also emphasize personal growth and fulfillment moving towards bigger goals self-actualizing
4 Humanistic Theorists
Carl Rogers (1902-1986)
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
5 Carl Rogers (1902-1987) 6
Approach to psychology was based on self- concept. Each individual has a self- concept which consists of his or her conscious thoughts and beliefs about himself or herself. View referred to as person-centered.
Believed that the most powerful drives are the ones to become fully functioning.
To be fully functioning is to achieve optimal psychological adjustment to live in the present getting the most from each experience.
To help children become fully functioning requires that we offer them unconditional positive regard.
Unconditional Positive Regard means showing a child that they are loved respected and accepted (this is positive regard) with no conditions attached.
This does NOT mean that parents must always agree with their childs behaviour choices. But they must never use love and acceptance as a means of pressuring the child into accepting their views.
Rogers said we should separate the childs behaviors from the childs self. We punish a child for doing a bad thing but never for being a bad child.
Helping people achieve positive self-regard is one of the major goal of Rogers person-centered therapy.
8 Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) 9
Peoples needs are positive and our major goal is to realize and put into practice those needs or to self-actualize
We have to master our lower needs before we could move to the highest need.
Our personality and subsequently behaviors are driven by or ability to master these needs.
10 (No Transcript) 11
Biological and Physiological needs - air food drink shelter warmth sex sleep etc.
Safety needs - protection from elements security order law limits stability etc.
Belongingness and Love needs - work group family affection relationships etc.
Esteem needs - self-esteem achievement mastery independence status dominance prestige managerial responsibility etc.
Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential self-fulfillment seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
12 Self - Actualization
A musician must make music and artist must paint a poet must write if he is to ultimately be at peace with himself. What a man can be he must be. This need we may call self- actualization (Maslow 1970)
13 Evaluating the Humanistic-Phenomenological Approach
Critics argue against the humanist psychologist strong emphasis on personal responsibility or free will.
This conflicts with the deterministic view that says that behavior and personality is influenced by many factors external factors.
Also concepts are loosely defined. What is self-actualization fully functioning Hard to do systematic research b/c concepts cannot be defined or tested. How do you measure self-actualizing self-concept etc
14 COGNITIVE APPROACH 15
Cognitive therapy is based on a theory of personality which maintains that how one thinks largely determines how one feels and behaves.
What matters most are the clients beliefs thoughts perceptions and attitudes about him/herself and the environment.
They dont deny the importance of behavior (stimulus-response) but they argue that A (activating events stimulus) doesnt just lead to C (consequences or behavior response) but there is an intervening process B (beliefs).
These beliefs can be rational or irrational. The way a person processes stimulus events is critical in determining what responses are produced and subsequently ones personality.
In Cognitive therapy it is not the stimuli (A) activating events that are crucial but rather the persons perceptions and interpretation of the events.
Individuals make themselves emotionally healthy or emotionally upset by the way they think not by the environment.
17 The Trait/Biological Approach 18
Personality is the set of enduring characteristics that influences ones interactions with others and their environment.
Individuals differ in the amount of each of these characteristics that they possess.
Trait/ Biological approach describes ones characteristics using three concepts stability consistency and generality and individual differences
1). Stability the biological psychologists see these enduring characteristics as permanent inherent elements of personality.
2). Consistency and Generality no trait is expected to appear all the time or in every situation. Different demands and circumstances can bring a somewhat different set of traits. However some aspects of behavior are consistent across situations and time. introversion- extraversion.
3). Individual Differences individuals are unique individual differences come from differences in the strength or pervasiveness of particular dispositions.
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