1 Electron Configuration Energy Levels the energy levels of electrons within an atom are represented by quantum numbers
Principal Quantum Number (n) represents
the principal energy level. n is equal to
the number of the principal energy level as
referred to under the Bohr atom and is the
same as the period number in the periodic
Ex Magnesiums (Mg) Principal Quantum Number is 3 because it is in the 3rd period. This means that that element has three energy levels 2
Sublevels principal energy levels may be
divided into sublevels
The total number of sublevels for each
principal energy level is equal to the
number of the principal energy level.
Ex The first principal energy level has one sublevel. The second principal energy level has two sublevels 3 The sublevels and what they look like The s sublevel The first energy level has one sublevel called the s sublevel. It has one orbital. The p sublevel The second energy level has two sublevels called the s and the p sublevels. This sublevel has four orbitals. 4 The d sublevel The third energy level has three sublevels called the s p and d sublevels. Nine orbitals The f sublevel The fourth energy level and beyond have four sublevels called the s p d and f sublevels. Sixteen orbitals. 5
Orbitals each sublevel may consist of one or
more orbitals with each orbital having a
different spatial orientation
- Each electrons occupies an orbital - An orbital can hold no more than two electrons - The number of orbitals within the same principal energy level (n) is equal to n2 when n is less than or equal to four Ex the first principal energy level has only one orbital (the s orbital) 12 1 the second principal energy level has four orbitals (the one s orbital and the three p orbitals) 22 4 6 This might seem very confusing but try to think of electron configuration as dwellings and the electrons as people living in these dwellings Each principal energy level can hold a certain amount of electrons. The first can hold two so it would be like a small one bedroom house. 7 - The second principal energy level can hold up to ten electrons so it would be like a large house. It would fill the first bedroom (the 1s sublevel) with two people (electrons) then the second room (2s sublevel) with two people (electrons) next would be the kids rooms (the 2p sublevels). Each kid (electron) would want their own room (one of the 2p orbitals. When the fourth kid comes along they would have to start sharing rooms until each room has two kids (electrons). 2p 1s 2s 8 Writing Electron Configurations Electron configuration of the atoms in order of their atomic numbers starting with hydrogen can be build up by adding one electron at a time according to the following rules 1. No more than two electrons can be accommodated in any orbital. (the two electrons in the same orbital have an opposite spin) 2. The added electron is place in the unfilled orbital of lowest energy.
In a given sublevel a second electron is not added to
an orbital until each orbital in the sublevel contains
4. No more than four orbitals are occupied in the outermost principal energy level of any atom. 9 In an electron configuration the number of electron in a sublevel is indicated by a superscript following the designation of the sublevel. Electrons will fill in the orbitals of lowest energy possible. They will always fill the orbitals in this order Ex Calcuim would be represented as 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 or Ar 4s2 in kernel notation 10 Ground State When electrons fill the orbitals of lowest energy possible they are said to be in the ground state - When electrons are given some energy they do not fill the orbitals from lowest energy up. This is called the excited state. Valance Electrons The electrons in the outermost principal energy level of an atom. - The chemical properties of an atom are related to the valence electrons. - The term kernel is used to refer to the atom exclusive of the valence electrons. The kernel consists of the nucleus and all the electrons except the valence electrons. 11 Ionization Energy The amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an atom in the gaseous phase. - Ionization energy refers to the removal of the first electron. - The second ionization energy refers to the removal of the second most loosely bound electron. - Each successive ionization energy is greater than the previous one. http//intro.chem.okstate.edu/WorkshopFolder/Elect ronconfnew.html
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