Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons contain multiple bonds
Alkene At least 1 CC
Alkyne At least 1 CC
3 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
Rules similar to Alkanes
Identify the parent compound longest chain that contains the double or triple bond
Name the parent compound
If alkene name the parent with the suffix ene
If alkyne name the parent with the suffix yne
4 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
The number of multiple bonds is indicated using a numerical prefix (diene 2 double bonds triene 3 double bonds and so on) when there is more than one.
5 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
Number the carbon atoms in the main chain beginning at the end nearer the multiple bond. If the multiple bond is an equal distance from both ends begin numbering at the end nearer the first branch point.
6 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
Cyclic alkenes are called cycloalkenes. The double-bond carbon atoms in substituted cycloalkenes are numbered 1 and 2 so as to give the first substituent the lower number
7 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
Write the full name.
Assign numbers to the branching substituents and list the substituents alphabetically.
Use commas to separate numbers and hyphens to separate words from numbers.
Indicate the position of the multiple bond in the chain by giving the number of the first multiple-bonded carbon. If more than one double bond is present identify the position of each and use the appropriate name ending (for example 13-butadiene and 136-heptatriene).
8 Cis-Trans Isomerism
Alkenes trigonal planar
Alkanes contain single bonds which allowed for easy rotation many conformers
Alkenes and Alkynes the formation of the multiple bond inhibits rotation
Very specific isomers
9 Cis-Trans Isomerism
Cistrans isomerism occurs in an alkene whenever each double-bond carbon is bonded to two different substituent groups. If one of the double-bond carbons is attached to two identical groups cistrans isomerism is not possible.
10 Cis-Trans Isomerism 11 Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes
Like the alkanes alkenes and alkynes are
Nonpolar insoluble in water soluble in nonpolar organic solvents less dense than water
Unlike the alkanes
Alkenes display cistrans isomerism when each double-bond carbon atom has different substituents
Alkenes and alkynes are chemically reactive at the multiple bond
12 Types of Organic Reactions
13 Types of Reactions
14 Types of Reactions
15 Types of Reactions
16 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Most common reaction of alkenes and alkynes are addition reactions
17 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Hydrogenation adds Hs to each carbon making up the multiple bond forming a saturated alkane
18 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Halogenation adds a halogen to each carbon present in the multiple bond
19 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Hydrohalogenation adds H to one carbon and a halogen to the other carbon making up the multiple bond
Markovnikovs rule When adding different substituents to the Cs of a multiple bond the H goes on the C with the most Hs in the multiple bond
20 Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Hydration Adds a water molecule to the double bond. The OH is attached to the C with the fewest Hs and the H is attached to the C with the most Hs.
21 How Alkene Addition Reactions Occur
Reaction mechanism A description of the individual steps by which old bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in a reaction
22 Alkene Polymers
A polymer is a large molecule formed by the repetitive bonding together of many smaller molecules called monomers.
23 Alkene Polymers
Adding an initiator to an alkene results in a break in the double bond yielding a reactive intermediate that contains an unpaired electron.
24 Aromatic Compounds and the Structure of Benzene
Aromatic compound any compound that contains a benzene ring
25 Aromatic Compounds and the Structure of Benzene
Aromatic compounds are much less reactive than alkenes
26 Aromatic Compounds and the Structure of Benzene
Simple aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene are nonpolar insoluble in water volatile and flammable. Unlike alkanes and alkenes however several aromatic hydrocarbons are toxic.
27 Naming Aromatic Compounds
Substituted benzenes are named using -benzene as the parent.
No number is needed for monosubstituted benzenes because all the ring positions are identical.
28 Naming Aromatic Compounds
Disubstituted aromatic compounds are named using one of the prefixes ortho- meta- or para-.
ortho- 12 relationship on the ring.
meta- 13 relationship on the ring.
para- 14 relationship on the ring.
Name in alphabetical order
29 Naming Aromatic Compounds
Many substituted aromatic compounds have common names in addition to their systematic names.
30 Naming Aromatic Compounds
Occasionally the benzene ring itself may be considered a substituent group attached to another parent compound. When this happens the name phenyl is used for the unit
31 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds
Aromatic Compounds typically follow substitution reactions
32 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds
Nitration replaces a H for NO2 using nitric acid and sulfuric acid
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