Title: IR5001 Theories and Concepts in International Relations PI5013 Contemporary Research Issues Week 11: DEMOCRATIZATION
1 IR5001 Theories and Concepts in International RelationsPI5013 Contemporary Research IssuesWeek 11DEMOCRATIZATION
Room F69 Edward Wright Building
2 Source Polity IV Country Reports 2003 3
Source Ronald Inglehart Mansoor Moaddel and Mark Tessler (2006) Xenophobia and In-Group Solidarity in Iraq A Natural Experiment on the Impact of Insecurity Perspectives on Politics Vol. 4 Issue 03 pp. 495-505
Note 14 countries with predominantly Islamic societies highlighted in bold.
4 How to study democratization
What is it
Why want it
Democratization in historical perspective
Are there waves
If so how many
Driving forces and obstacles to democratic transition
5 I. Democracy1. What is it
A democratic country is one in which the Sovereign and the people are one and the same person (J.-J. Rousseau 1754).
The democratic method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the peoples vote (J.A. Schumpeter 1943).
Different things to different people (W.B. Gallie 1964)
Dichotomous regime classification (Przeworski et al. 1996)
Freedom House political rights score (7 to 1)
Polity IV measure of institutionalized Democracy (0 to 10)
World Banks Political Institutions Database (-2.5 to 2.5)
Vanhanens (2000) Polyarchy Index (1 to 100)
LIT Berg-Schlosser D. (2004d) The quality of democracies in Europe as measured by current indicators of democratization and good governance Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 20(1) 28-55
Munck G. L. Verkuilen J. (2002) Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy - Evaluating Alternative Indices Comparative Political Studies 35(1) 5-34.
10 II. Democratization in historical perspective
Three major waves (e.g. Huntington)
Early 1800s end of WWI
1945 to early 1960s
1974 to 1991
Two long waves and three major positive conjunctures (Berg-Schlosser)
First long wave Early 1800s WWI
First conjuncture 1918/19
Second conjuncture 1945/52
Second long wave 1945 1990 (or ongoing)
Third conjuncture 1989-91
11 Emergence of Democracies since 1800Based on Jaggers and Gurr (1996) countries with 8 and more points on the Polity III democracy scale 12 (No Transcript) 13 III. Driving forces and obstacles1) Statehood
No state no democracy (Linz 2007)
14 2) Economy
Modernization and economic development (Lipset 1960 Vanhanen 1997)
Growth of bourgeoisie
rising social mobilization (literacy urbanization non-agricultural employment)
Non-linear relationship (Kuznets curve of inequality)
What about India
Or the Middle East
Investors prefer democracies (Boix 2003)
Business actors contingent democrats (Bellin)
15 3) Culture
if segmented some consociational arrangements (Lijphart 1977)
democratic political culture (Almond and Verba 1963)
16 4) International environment
neighbourhood effects diffusion and contagion (e.g. Daniel Brinks and Michael Coppedge (2006) Diffusion is No Illusion Neighbor Emulation in the Third Wave of Democracy Comparative Political Studies (May).
The post-1975 international conjuncture (Przeworski et al. Sustainable Democracy 1995)
decline of the Bretton Woods gold/dollar peg
oil price shocks mounting foreign debt
turn toward fiscal austerity in/by developed countries
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