1 Welcome 2 Animal Cloning Hariom Yadav1 Shalini Jain1 and Mukesh Yadav2 1Animal Biochemistry Division National Dairy Research Institute Karnal-132001 Haryana INDIA 2SOS in Chemistry Jiwaji University Gwalior-474011 M.P. INDIA Corresponding author Email yadavhariom_at_gmail.com 3 Cloning Clone is a group of genetically identical cells Clone is also an organism which is genetically an exact replica of another organism. Cloning is to duplicate a cell or an organism usually asexually which is genetically an exact replica of the other cell or organism. 4 History of cloning
1962 - John Gurdon claims to have cloned frogs from adult cells.
1963 - J.B.S. Haldane coins the term clone.
1966 - Establishment of the complete genetic code.
1967 - Enzyme DNA ligase isolated.
1969 - Shapiero and Beckwith isolate the first gene.
1970 - First restriction enzyme isolated.
1972 - Paul Berg creates the first recombinant DNA molecules.
1973 - Cohen and Boyer create first recombinant DNA organisms.
1977 - Karl Illmensee claims to have created mice with only one parent.
1979 - Karl Illmensee makes claim to have cloned three mice.
1983 - Kary B. Mullis develops the polymerase chain reaction technique
for rapid DNA synthesis.
1983 - Solter and McGrath fuse a mouse embryo cell with an egg without a
nucleus but fail to clone using their technique.
1984 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells
5 Contd 1985 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells. Steen Willadsen joins Grenad Genetics to commercially clone cattle. 1986 - Steen Willadsen clones cattle from differentiated cells. 1986 - First Prather and Eyestone clone a cow from embryo cells. 1990 - Human Genome Project begins 1996 - Dolly the first animal cloned from adult cells born. 1997 - President Bill Clinton proposes a five year moratorium on cloning. 1997 - Richard Seed announces his plans to clone a human. 1997 - Wilmut and Campbell create Polly a cloned sheep with an inserted human gene. 1998 - Teruhiko Wakayama creates three generations of genetically identical cloned mice. 6 Why we want to do cloning Researchers hope that these techniques can be used in researching and treating human diseases and genetically altering animals for the production of human transplant organs. 7 Steps in Cloning Step 1 Take any cell from your body from the skin for example. Step 2 Take an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary of any woman. Step 3 Take the nucleus out of the egg cell. Step 4 Put together the cell of your skin and the egg without nucleus. It will start to multiply forming a microspic ball of many identical cells. Step 5 In about 6 days place it in the uterus of the woman. Step 6 In 9 months a baby will be born just like you an identical twin of you without any genetic characteristics of the woman who gave the ovule and provided the uterus and gave birth to your twin. 8 (No Transcript) 9 (No Transcript) 10 (No Transcript) 11 (No Transcript) 12 (No Transcript) 13 (No Transcript) 14 What is Basic principle of cloning 15 (No Transcript) 16 Purpose full cloning 17 (No Transcript) 18
Pros and Cons of Cloning
Produce animals with desirable traits.
Increase the efficiency of the livestock production.
Offset losses of among endangered species populations.
Enable better research for finding cures to many diseases.
Provide children for parents who would like a child but cant have one for various reasons.
Provide parents with an opportunity to clone a child who has died.
Decline in genetic diversity.
Taking nature into our own hands.
Religious and moral reasons.
Physical problems such as birth defects.
Possibility of mental and emotional problems of the clone.
19 Applications of Animal Cloning Animals as drug producers Gene farming Animal models Models for human diseases Breeding endogenic body tissue Transplantation Xenotransplantation Animal organs Human Livestock breeding and agriculture Transgenic clones 20 Thanks 21 Ethics for Animal Cloning
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