3 Historical context James (1890) Subjective I objective me Freud (1930s) Jung (1930s40s) Ego Id Super-ego self and shadow (psycho-sexual dev.) Melanie Kline (1940s 50s) Fragmented self reintegrated Erikson (Late 1950s-70s) Self identity in the life-cycle (psycho-social dev) 4
What are the key points
What are the key criticisms
Once you have read the piece discuss key points in your groups and then summarize to whole class.
5 Eriksons Life Cycle as a context Stage Age Conflict Signif. event 6 Self and the young child
Stipek Gralinski Kopp (1990) moved studies of the self-concept in toddlers from a uni-dimensional approach (research into subjective I or objective me separately) to a multi-dimensional sequential one.
7 Research suggests following sequence
Perceptual self-recognition (15 months)
Cognitive self-representation (18 months)
Linguistic self-description (23-24 months)
Motivational self-assertion (29-
Emotional self-evaluation (30 months)
15 months 2 years 2 ½ years 3 years
8 Self identity and the adolescent 9 Development of gender identity beware of confusing role with identity they may well be interrelated and interdependent but they arent the same thingbeware of using sex and sexuality as synonymous with genderbeware of assuming that transexuality is the same as transgendered identity. 10 http//www.film.queensu.ca/Critical/Photos/SomeHot .JPG
http//salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year1/int topic/development_nature.gif 11 J. Money A. Ehrhardt (1972) Man and woman boy and girl. Baltimore.
Sex refers to physical attributes and is anatomically and physiologically predetermined
Gender psychological transformation of the self the internal conviction that one is either male or female (gender identity) and the behavioural expressions of that conviction.
12 gender identity can be defined as the sameness unity and persistence of ones individuality as male female or ambivalent.. Gender identity is the private experience of gender role and gender role is the public experience of gender identity. Money Ehrhardt (1972) p.4
What does such a definition mean for the work of psychologists
Are sex and gender truly separable
13 Gender identity development basics (1)
Gender awareness is an important part of the psychosocial development of a child
Development typically involves congruence between gender identity (inner sense) and gender role (outward expressions)
14 Gender identity development basics (2)
gendered play develops gender stereotypes harden gender constancy begins to dev. Infant recognises male/female faces Birth 9 months 1yr 2yrs 3yrs 4yrs Adult 15 Approaches to development of gender
Fast I. (1993) Aspects of early gender development A psychodynamic approach. In The Psychology of Gender ed. A.E.Beall R.J. Sternberg. New York 173-193.
Jacklin C.N. C. Reynolds (1993) Gender and childhood socialization. In The Psychology of Gender (as above) 197-214
Kessler S.J. W. McKenna (1978) Gender An Ethnomethodological Approach. New York.
Fausto-Sterling A. (2000) Sexing the Body Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York
16 Freudian perspective
Child becomes aware of own genitals this awareness leads to erotic fantasies
This in turn leads to identification with a suitable adult and the development of appropriate gender role.
Is this a bit one-sided
17 Social learning
Main assumption adult awareness of the childs genitals leads to differential reinforcement
This leads adults to offer gender appropriate models which the child then internalizes.
Does a child have any agency in the process of gender identity construction
18 Cognitive development
Basic assumption same as social learning in terms of adult perception of childs genitals as critical.
Person other than the child labels childs gender and gives them a gender identity.
This is followed by child acquiring appropriate gender role.
19 Systems approach
Gender is represented within both social institutions and within individuals.
Gender identity is effectively constructed within a self-perpetuating feed-back loop from institution to individual.
How do social context and daily practice of both adults and children generate meaning
What do you think might be the implications of these different assumptions to gender identity for psychologists
(do we need to redefine notion of psychopathology with respect to gender identity disorder For example)
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