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Fort Sumter and the beginning of the Civil War

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... the beginning of the Civil War. April 12, 1861. Background ... considered an act of war ... and Maryland essential to the U.S. for it to win the war ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fort Sumter and the beginning of the Civil War


1
Fort Sumter and the beginning of the Civil War
  • April 12, 1861

2
Background
  • Three Federal forts in Charleston, S.C.
  • Castle Pinckney- obsolete in 1861 federal
    government did not think it was worth rearming
  • Fort Moultrie- 77 men garrison under Major Robert
    Anderson fort in bad shape small artillery
    pieces
  • Fort Sumter- built on a man made island just
    about completed by 1861 not all the guns mounted
  • S.C. wants all forts yielded

3
Buchanans Reaction
  • Buchanan would not yield the forts
  • December 26, 1860- Anderson and troops move from
    Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter
  • Move made because Fort Moultrie could be attacked
    from the rear
  • S.C.- calls the move aggressive
  • January,1861- unarmed transport ship Star of the
    West sent to Fort Sumter with food and weapons
  • S.C.- fires at it and it retreats

4
Lincolns Plan
  • Anderson told to hold the fort and make a good
    defense
  • Provisions at the fort adequate until mid-April,
    1861
  • Lincolns decision- notified S.C. that the fort
    would be provisioned and not reinforced
  • C.S.A.- force the issue before the relief ship
    got to Fort Sumter
  • Anderson given an ultimatum to surrender he
    refuses
  • 430 A.M. April 12, 1861- S.C. opened fire on the
    fort

5
The Battle
  • 34 hour bombardment
  • No one killed
  • Garrison surrendered and went North
  • S.C. took the fort

6
Lincolns Reaction and the Southern Response
  • April 15, 1861- Lincoln calls for 75,000 three
    month militiamen
  • April 19, 1861- calls for a blockade of the
    Southern seacoast
  • Lincolns move considered an act of war
  • Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
    that had voted down secession earlier now joined
    the C.S.A.
  • Richmond, Va.- now the capital of the C.S.A.

7
The Border States
  • Four slave states remained part of the U.S.
  • Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware and Maryland
    essential to the U.S. for it to win the war
  • Lincoln sent in troops immediately for the
    purpose of preserving the Union
  • Lincoln publicly declared he was not fighting to
    free the slaves
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