Americans eat on average 75 pounds of poultry/year
6 Interesting Facts!
The Comb of a chicken functions as its cooling system. Chickens do not sweat like humans. The chicken cools itself by circulating its blood throughout its comb and wattles.
On mature poultry the red parts under the beak are the wattles
The red part on top of the head is the comb
Comb wattle 8 Interesting Facts
The Earlobe color can tell you what color egg the chicken will lay.
If the chicken has a white earlobe it will lay a white-shelled egg.
If it has a red earlobe it will lay a brown-shelled egg
9 Purpose of Feathers
Feathers basically serve as the birds protection.
Insulate the bird from the cold
Protect the birds skin from getting wet
Help the bird fly or glide to safety.
10 The Poultry Industry 11 Small Scale Operations
Kept for egg production
Pest control (bugs)
12 Large Scale Operations
efficiently and economically provide a comfortable healthy environment for growing birds.
Temperature air quality humidity and light are critical factors to consider.
13 Large Scale Operations
Failure to provide the adequate environment during the brooding period will reduce profitability resulting in reduced growth and development poorer feed conversion and increased disease and mortality.
Managing the house and chicks correctly will get chicks off to a good start.
15 When adequate house temperature is obtained and chicks are well managed they should be distributed throughout the house and not huddling together 16 Broiler houses
The typical broiler house holds between 10000- 100000 birds
Large houses (50 x 500 ft)
Very dark (so birds arent active)
17 Broiler houses
Most broiler houses are similar in structure with insulated roofs and litter-covered dirt floors.
Ventilation is provided either by natural air movement or power ventilation systems using fans.
The tunnel ventilation system using fans in the house has become popular with many companies.
18 Egg Layers 19 Battery Cages
battery cages/laying cages are a confinement system used primarily for egg-laying hens
sloped floor that allows eggs to roll out to the front of the cage where they are easily collected.
98 of US eggs are produced by hens in battery cages
Eggs are cleaner
Conveyor belts run underneath cages to remove manure
Manure is removed decrease in smell parasites
Animal Welfare scientists have been critical of battery cages because they do not provide hens with sufficient space to stand walk flap their wings perch or make a nest.
It is widely considered that hens suffer through boredom and frustration through being unable to perform these behaviors
Battery cages are banned in other countries such as Sweden Switzerland Finland
Free Range Chickens/Eggs
Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner.
The animals are allowed as much freedom as possible to live out their instinctual behaviors in a reasonably natural way.
23 Practices in Poultry Industry
Debeaking- Removal of top of beak prevents cannibalism.
24 Practices in the poultry industry
Egg candling - is a method used in embryology to study the growth and development of an embryo inside an egg.
The method uses a bright light source behind the egg to show details through the shell and is so called because the original sources of light used were candles
Embryology is the study of the development of an embryo
Embryo - an organism in a stage before birth or hatching
26 How to candle an egg Hold the large end of an egg up to the candling light in a slanting position. You can see the air cell the yolk and the white. The air cell is nearly always in the large end of the shell. Hold the egg between your thumb and first two fingers.
27 (No Transcript) 28 Poultry Carcass Evaluation
Objective Define terminology used in poultry carcass selection and evaluation
29 Why Grade Poultry Carcasses
To insure quality before it is sold
Prevent the selling of an unwholesome product
Did you know
Grading is voluntary and paid for by the meat packer
30 Grading Poultry Carcasses
USDA Grades indicate quality not sanitation
Ready-to-cook means that certain parts have been removed
feet and feathers
viscera (soft internal organs)
31 What are the Grades
Poultry Carcass Grades
Sold in stores
Often not a grade sold in stores
Usually used for processing into other food products
32 Evaluation Factors Poultry carcasses are graded on the following factors
disjointed and broken bones
33 Evaluation Factors
Conformation ideal is normal breastbone back legs and wings
Fleshing well fleshed or muscled is ideal
Fat Covering well covered is ideal
Exposed Flesh none is ideal.
34 Evaluation Factors
5. Discoloration Bruises not allowed on breast and legs of grade A
6. Disjointed and broken bones - no broken and 1 disjointed allowed for grade A
7. Missing parts wing tips and tail can be missing on grade A
8. Freezing defects slight ones allowed for grade A
- Freezer burn discolors and dries out poultry
35 PARTS OF THE EGG 36 Parts
Shell protects egg. Porous allows for exchange of gases (9000 pores in 1 egg!)
Air cell part of the egg containing only air. The fresher the egg the smaller the air cell.
Germinal disc - The entrance for fertilization.
Shell membranes membranes on the inside of the shell. Protect the contents of the egg from bacteria and prevent moisture from leaving the egg too quickly.
Chalaza pair of spiral bands that anchor the yolk in the center of the egg
Embryo bird which has not yet hatched.
yolk part of the egg which develops into an embryo once the egg has been fertilized.
Albumen white of the egg which nourishes the embryo once the egg has been fertilized.
38 Poultry/Hen Reproduction 39 MAJOR DIFFERENCES
The embryo of livestock develops inside the female while poultrys embryo develops inside the egg outside the body.
Birds have only 1 left ovary and oviduct at maturity. The right ovary does not function.
The ovary is responsible for egg (ova) production hormone production
The ovary produces ova (eggs) and hormones.
In poultry the yolk inside the egg is the ovum (female reproductive cell)
Ventoutside opening (where egg comes out)
http//www.youtube.com/watchvRAiTOuSyJsQ http// www.youtube.com/watchvAq9Xc2lX_4I 44 (No Transcript) 45 Hen Reproductive Tract Ovary 46
Ovary- produces ova yolk hormones. part where yellow round egg yolks of different sizes are attached
Infundibulum-place of fertilization. Funnel shaped end of oviduct
Magnum- secretes thick egg white (albumen)
1. Isthmus-add the 2 shell membranes
2. Uterus- secretes the shell and shell pigment
3. Vagina- holds the egg until its laid
1 2 3 50
Cloaca inside the vent of both male and females. Posterior opening for reproductive intestinal and urinary tracts.
51 How long does it take a hen to lay an egg
Ovulation- release of mature yolk from the ovary.
Infundibulum- receives the yolk about 15 minutes spent.
Yolk moves into magnum 50 of albumen is added. Takes 3 hours.
Spends 1.5 hours in the Isthmus. Shell membranes added.
52 How long does it take a hen to lay an egg Continued.
Spends the next 21 hours in the Uterus.
Remainder of albumen is added.
Shell pigment also happens here.
Vagina- the fully formed egg enters cloaca and is hard.
30 minutes after egg is laid process happens again.
Takes about 24 to 25 hours for chickens.
53 Cloaca 54 Egg Function is reproduction but is eaten as food by humans and wild animals 55 The ROOSTER
2 Testes are located in the abdominal cavity near the backbone
56 (No Transcript) 57 Semen is carried from the testes to the cloaca by a small tube called the vas deferens. Both VD exit through a small penis-like organ called a papilla. 58 Natural lighting conditions in spring stimulate sperm production and conditions in autumn depress production. 59 rooster papilla or phallus 60 If the female is receptive she will crouch. The male steps on her back squats down so that the vents can touch and releases the semen. Cloaca kiss 61 Sperm cells must then migrate the whole length of the female reproductive tract to join with the egg cell that is on the yolk. Fertilization occurs in the infundibulum. 62 Male and females sexually mature at about five months of age. A female lays between 90 and 200 eggs per year. 63 All hens like to lay their eggs in a nest that is in a quiet semi-darkened well-prepared place with good clean nesting material. 64 Some chickens and ducks can lay an egg every day for more than 300 consecutive days!! 65 Chicken Eggs hatch in about 21 days. Chicks are covered with soft down at birth. 66
During the first 24 hours after hatching the chicks consume the remainder of the yolk.
67 HEN Judging-Is she a good layer
Things to consider
(Is she laying now)
Should have large moist vent and large red comb and wattles
Should have frayed feathers and exhibit loss of pigment in the yellow parts of her body
Rate of Production
Should have soft pliable abdomen thin skin
69 Judging Past Production Laying Hens
Pigment Loss (Bleaching of yellow parts)
Chickens start to lay eggs at sexual maturity (16-22 weeks). The pigment then bleaches from the pigmented areas (legs vent earlobe beak) in a definite order according to the approximate number of eggs she has laid
Bleaching of yellow parts
71 Weeks Pigment Loss Occurs Look at p. 78 72 Good Layer
Notice the white appearance of the shanks (legs)
73 Poor Layer
Notice how much yellow pigment is still in the shanks
74 Notice the Desired Vent on the Left 75
76 Example of how to measure pullets Body Mass 77 Incubating Eggs! 78 What is incubation
Artificial means of keeping an egg warm until hatching.
Done in an incubator- artificially heated container.
Still-air incubator- air is not circulated.
Force-air incubator- has a fan to circulate air.
79 What are the different methods of incubating eggs
Laying eggs in the incubator and turning them by hand every day.
Using an automatic turner
Stop turning 3 days before hatching
The incubator must be kept at a certain temperature range 99 to 101 F.
Chicken egg - 21 days.
Turkeys - 28 days.
Ducks - 33-35 days
Button Quail 18 days
Ostrich Emu 40-50 days
emu egg 81 How does the chick get out
Baby birds and reptiles have a special tool to help them break out of their eggs. It is called an egg tooth. The egg tooth is a small pointed projection on the top of the beak near the very tip. It is made of the same hard material as the beak.
When the bird is ready to hatch the egg tooth is like a little can opener. The chicks will pip the shell (make a little hole) and chip away at the shell as it moves around the shell.
Newly hatched chicks need to be kept warm in a Brooder
Many different types
Well be using homemade ones (easy to make and inexpensive)
Can be made from plastic tubs
Maintaining the correct temperature is crucial!
The newly hatched chick is poorly equipped to control its body temperature.
As a result the young chick is dependent on environmental temperature to maintain optimal body temperature
The chick develops the ability to regulate its body temperature around 12 to 14 days of age
95 degrees for the 1st week drop by 5 degrees every week until 6 weeks old
84 Are they hot or cold
Chicks that are cold will be huddled together or trying to lay directly under the heat/light source
Chicks that are hot will move away from the heat source will pant and will stretch out on the litter in efforts to cool themselves
Cold chicks are louder! peep peep
85 Handling baby chicks
Wash hands BEFORE and AFTER touching the chicks
If youre sick do not handle
Be very careful handling them
Hold on to them carefully (do not squeeze them their bones are fragile)
Sit down at desk and hold them over the desk
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!